Archive for the ‘Pre-Medieval’ Category

Pottery found by St Joseph. See caption.

Pottery found by St Joseph. See caption.


The settlement of Pennocrucium lies astride Watling St. It occupies what would really be the prime location in the area for a civil development; it is on high ground and would not only have initially had a Roman garrison to financially exploit, but plenty of passing trade as it was at the junction of several major roads. Its origins are far from clear: the surrounding military ditches give the impression that it may have grown from a fort itself, but limited dating evidence suggests to me that it started out as a vicus (that is a civil settlement attracted by a military installation, for example) around the Watling St fort in the latter 1st century AD… https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt6/

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Aerial photo of the site in 1971 (J Pickering)

Aerial photo of the site in 1971 (J Pickering)


There are three types of fort: the fortress was for an entire legion (5,000 men) and both Wroxeter and Chester were the closest fortresses to Pennocrucium; the vexilliation fortress, it has been mooted, dates to around the conquest period and was for housing half a legion – it has been suggested that Kinvaston was one of these; the auxiliary fort was for between 500 – 1,000 troops, be they infantry, cavalry or a mixture of the two. Pennocrucium has two of these… what do we know about them and their relationship to each other… https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt5/

Camp 1 from the SW. 1975. (CUCAP BTM 40)

Camp 1 from the SW. 1975. (CUCAP BTM 40)


Along with the several unidentified cropmarks that appear within our area (see part 3) there are three recognised Roman forts (Stretton, Kinvaston and Watling Street) and five Roman Camps (three near Stretton and two near Water Eaton). As the camps likely constitute, in my opinion, the earliest phases of Roman construction in the area, they will examined in this section while the forts, settlement and the villa will be in future articles… https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt4/

A palstave with ring, the description of the now lost axe-head from 1726. (J-M B Alvarez)

A palstave with ring, the description of the now lost axe-head from 1726. (J-M B Alvarez)


This is the third in a series of articles that ultimately together will make make-up my undergraduate degree dissertation from back in 1999/2000. The first article dealt with the introductions followed by the location, extent, topography and the origins of Pennocrucium as a place-name. The second dealt with the road system, known and suggested. This third part is a short article on the unidentified, possibly pre-Roman, cropmarks in the studied area, as well as the prehistoric finds – and it will act as a prequel to the examination of the Roman forts, camps, settlement and villa in the forthcoming articles… https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt3/

Watling St - through the settlement site, across the River Penk to where the Chester Rd once split. WA Baker 1970.

Watling St – through the settlement site, across the River Penk to where the Chester Rd once split. WA Baker 1970.


This is the second of a series of articles. The first article dealt with the introductions followed by the location, extent, topography and the origins of Pennocrucium as a place-name. In this section I want to look at the communication system that surrounded the civil and military installations at Pennocrucium. So, after a basic introduction to roads, I want to look at the several known roads and the several ‘possible’ roads in the area. After, a brief comparison will also be made between the settlement at Pennocrucium and that at Wall (Letocetum, near Lichfield); Wall was the neighbouring settlement, around 15 miles to the east, which also grew-up around a road junction – in this case Watling St and Icknield St.
https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt2/

Pennocrucium settlement site and Watling St (WA Baker 21/7/70)

Pennocrucium settlement site and Watling St
(WA Baker 21/7/70)

The choice in covering a Roman site for this dissertation was probably inevitable: not only am I from Italian extract, but I was born within a stones throw of the Roman site at Wall (Letocetum, near Lichfield). The area I chose for this study is located some 3 miles south-west of the modern town of Penkridge in Staffordshire. The Romans named the area Pennocrucium. According to the Staffordshire Sites and Monuments Record, the 6 km square area that I chose to investigate houses a Roman settlement, three forts, several camps, a villa and a number of roads, as well as a pre-historic barrow and other possible cropmarks of pre-historic origin.
https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/other-places/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge/pennocrucium-roman-penkridge-pt1/

Domesday Book (National Archives)

Domesday Book
(National Archives)

Domesday has reached almost biblical status in the way that local historians use it to prove their village existed in the late 11th century. As most people tend to look at Domesday simply for their entry, they don’t tend to question the document as a whole: the truth is that it is filled with errors, omissions and inconsistencies so the whole thing can be somewhat bewildering at best. Following on from the Wyrley article, this article will give my thoughts on the Bloxwich entry and the missing Walsall one. https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/walsall/domesday-book-the-walsall-and-bloxwich-question/

Lead statue of Minerva found in Great Wyrley (Portable Antiquities Scheme: WMID-B76FD0)

Lead statue of Minerva found in Great Wyrley
(Portable Antiquities Scheme: WMID-B76FD0)

This article is for those that are having trouble sleeping, or are really interested in the possible early origins of Great Wyrley (and the wider area), From pre-history to the Anglo-Saxons, it looks at the vague archaeological evidence, as well as place-names… https://wyrleyblog.wordpress.com/wyrley-landywood/the-origins-of-great-wyrley/